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Independent Power Systems
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Handbook for Energy Independence

A 48 Volt DC, 4.5 KiloWatt Solar Power System
Design Data Worksheet
Systems Loads Worksheet
Concept Phase
Design Phase
Purchasing Phase
Installation Phase
Final Remarks


As an introduction, one might browse these website that offer a wide variety of renewable energy equipment.  They have a good selection to look at and start from.

The inverter selection requires a DC system voltage be specified.  Smaller systems can get by with 12 volts, but most heavier duty systems will require 24 - 48 volts.  Commercial and industrial systems can exceed 100 volts. 

The DC system voltage also affects the battery layout.  The batteries will be arranged in a series / parallel arrangement to get the desired combination of DC voltage, electrical storage capacity, and electrical surge capability. 

By now one should already know their AC loads, for most of us in North America this will be 120 VAC @ 60 HZ. 

Battery Bank
The most common batteries come in 2, 6, or 12 volt packages.  When selecting batteries, these two points should be kept in mind:

Recalling some basic electrical principles:

Below are links to battery sources who have respectable products, where one can familiarize with the various types and capacities.  Expanding the search beyond these sources is also recommended.


To convert amp-hours into kw-hrs use the following:

Power (watts)  =  (voltage) x (current)

Kw-hr  =  (battery voltage) x (amp-hrs)

Sometimes specifications are listed on a per cell basis, with each cell being approximately 2 volts. Remember to multiply by the number of cells to obtain the performance rating for the entire battery bank.


MicroGrid Living

- MicroGrid Power Systems
- Benefits of the MicroGrid
- Running on DC Electricity
- Things to Think About
- Sizing Your Microgrid Power System
- Energy Conservation Strategies
- Hybrid Power Systems

MicroGrid Solar Power

- Solar Power Applications
- Photovoltaic Solar Panels
- Increasing Solar Panel Performance
- Mounting PV Solar Panels
- Solar Power Tracking Systems
- One Axis Solar Panel Tracking (Passive)
- Solar Power Cost & Payback
- Sizing your Solar Power System

MicroGrid Power Devices

- Wind Turbines
- Wood Burner Systems
- Thermal Power Systems
- DC Thermal Generators
- Hydro Turbines

MicroGrid History

- Nikola Tesla Source of Human Energy
- Nikola Tesla Energy from the Medium
- James Watt & the Steam Engine
- Marcellus Jacob Wind Turbine

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